Legal Highs. A Concise Encyclopedia of Legal Herbs and Chemicals with Psychoactive Properties

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The rapid and extensive worldwide rise of synthetic cathinone abuse is attracting increasing attention, due to many intoxications and overdose deaths. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Editors view affiliations Jolanta B. Front Matter Pages i-x. Pages Khat—A Natural Source of Cathinone. Metabolism of Synthetic Cathinones. Pharmacol Biochem Behav ;83 1 Kappaopioid ligands in the study and treatment of mood disorders. Pharmacol Ther ; 3 Salvinorin A. From natural product to human therapeutics. Mol Interv ;6 5 Bioorg Med Chem ;16 3 Antinociceptive effects of herkinorin, a MOP receptor agonist derived from salvinorin A in the formalin test in rats: New concepts in mu-opioid receptor pharmacology.

Drug Alcohol Depend ; 3 Acute physiologic and chronic histologic changes in rats and mice exposed to the unique hallucinogen salvinorin A. J Psychoactive Drugs ;35 3 Determination of salvinorin A and salvinorin B in Salvia divinorum -related products circulated in Japan. Analysis of the psychoactive terpenoid salvinorin A content in five Salvia divinorum herbal products.

Pharmacotherapy ;26 9 Hintzen A, Passie T. The pharmacology of LSD. A critical review. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Hofmann A. LSD - Mein Sorgenkind. Die Entdeckung einer "Wunderdroge". Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta; Schultes RE, Hofmann A. The botany and chemistry of hallucinogens , 2nd ed.

Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher; Genest K, Sahasrabudhe MR. Alkaloids and lipids in Ipomoea , Rivea and Convolvulus and their application to chemotaxonomy. Econ Bot ;20 4 Ergoline alkaloids in tropical wood roses. Science ; Variable adverse effects in subjects after ingestion of equal doses of Argyreia nervosa seeds. Forensic Sci Int ; :e6-e8. Biosynthesis and accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in a mutualistic association between Ipomoea asarifolia Convolvulaceae and a clavicipitalean fungus.

Plant Physiol ; 1 Elimination of ergoline alkaloids following treatment of Ipomoea asarifolia Convolvulaceae with fungicides. Planta ; 4 Alkaloid toxins in endophyte-infected grasses. Nat Toxins ;1 3 Isbell H, Gorodetzky CW. Effect of alkaloids of ololiuqui in man. Psychopharmacologia Berl ;8 5 Argyreia nervosa Burm. J Ethnopharmacol ; 2 Recreational use of Dlysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa , Ipomoea tricolor , Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland.

J Psychoactive Drugs ;45 1 Analysis of lysergic acid amide in human serum and urine after ingestion of Argyreia nervose seeds. Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2 8. Two cases of lysergamide intoxication by ingestion of seeds from Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. Forensic Sci Intl ; 1- 3 :e1-e5. Nervenartz ;73 9 The ethnopharmacology of ayahuasca. Trivandrum: Transworld Research Network; Metzner R Ed. Sacred vine of spirits: Ayahuasca. Pharmacology of ayahuasca administered in two repeated doses. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 4 Seeing with the eyes shut: neural basis of enhanced imagery following ayahuasca ingestion.

Human Brain Mapp ;33 11 Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol ExpTher ; 1 Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans - An overview focusing on developmental toxicology. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

PLoS One ;7 8 :e Hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. J Psychoactive Drugs ;44 3 Food Chem Toxicol ;48 3 Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. J Psychoactive Drugs ;37 2 Curr Med Chem ;14 4 Investigation of hallucinogenic and related s-carbolines. Drug Alcohol Depend ;50 2 Pharmacological studies of Passiflora sp. Afr J Plant Sci ;41 10 European Medicines Agency. Assessment report on Passiflora incarnata L. Rodd R, Sumabila A.

Yopo, ethnicity and social change: a comparative analysis of Piaroa and Cuiva yopo use. J Psychoactive Drugs ;43 1 Ott J. Ayahuasca analogues. A critical review of reports of endogenous psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamines in humans: Drug Test Anal ;4 7- 8 Pharmahuasca: human pharmacology of oral DMT plus harmine. J Psychoactive Drugs ;31 2 Gonzales v. Statement on ayahuasca. Int J Drug Policy ;23 3 Kostakis C, Byard RW. Sudden death associated with intravenous injection of toad extract. Forensic Sci Int ; 1- 3 :e1-e5. Weil AT, Davis W. Bufo alvarius : a potent hallucinogen of animal origin.

J Ethnopharmacol ;41 1 Bufo toads and bufotenine: Fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic. J Psychoactive Drugs ;28 3 Identification of 5-hydroxytryptamine bufotenine in takini Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. Berg, Moraceae , a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau. ISSN: Psychedelic 5-methoxy- N , N -tryptamine: Metabolism, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and pharmacological actions. Curr Drug Metab ;11 8 Potentially hallucinogenic 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor ligands bufotenine and dimethyltryptamine in blood and tissues.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest ;65 3 Tissue distribution, metabolism and effects of bufotenine administered to rats. Neuropharmacology ;34 7 Hardeland R. Melatonin metabolism in the central nervous system. Curr Neuropharmacol ;8 3 The ibogaine medical subculture.

J Ethnopharmacol ; 1 Lotsof HS, Wachtel B. Manual for ibogaine therapy. The Alkaloids. San Diego: Academic Press; Fatalities temporally associated with the ingestion of ibogaine. J Forensic Sci ;57 2 Life-threatening complications of ibogaine: three case reports. Neth J Med ;70 9 Maas U, Strubelt S. Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction treatment could be related to sudden cardiac death caused by autonomic dysfunction.

Med Hypotheses ;67 4 Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits hERG channels: a cardiac arrhythmia risk. Cardiac arrest after ibogaine ingestion. Addict Biol ;15 4 Ibogaine and noribogaine: structural analysis and stability studies. J Liq Chromatogr Related Technol ;30 8 Anti-addictive actions of an iboga alkaloid congener: a novel mechanism for a novel treatment.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav ;75 3 Popik P, Skolnick P. Pharmacology of ibogaine and ibogainerelated alkaloids. In: Cordell GA Ed. The Alkaloids, Vol. Glial cell linederived neurotrophic factor mediates the desirable actions of the anti-addiction drug ibogaine against alcohol consumption. J Neurosci ;25 3 Acute toxicity of ibogaine and noribogaine. Medicina Kaunas ;44 12 Mitragyna speciosa , a psychoactive tree from Southeast Asia with opioid activity.

Curr Top Med Chem ;11 9 Forensic Toxicol ;27 2 Takayama H. Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa.

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Chem Pharm Bull ;52 8 The informal use of ketum Mitragyna speciosa for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. Int J Drug Policy ;21 4 Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom Mitragyna speciosa korth.

Addiction ; 6 Grewal KS. The effect of mitragynine on man. Br J Med Psychol ;12 1 Pattern and consequences of krathom Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Int J Drug Policy ;24 4 McWhirter L, Morris S. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom Mitragyna speciosa dependence. Eur Addict Res ;16 4 Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of kratom Mitragyna speciosa extract.

Psychopharmacology ; 1 Some observations on the pharmacology of mitragynine. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther ; 1 Antinociception, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, an alkaloid from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. Life Sci ;78 1 A drug fatality involving kratom. Intrahepatic cholestasis following abuse of powdered kratom Mitragyna speciosa.

J Med Toxicol ;7 3 Tungtananuwat W, Lawanprasert S. Fatal 4x Homemade kratom juice cocktail. J Health Res ;24 1 Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O -desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton. J Anal Toxicol ;35 4 Anchorage man sentenced to months for conspiracy to distribute synthetic heroin. Available at: www. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom Mitragyna speciosa Korth.

Current situation of substance-related problems in Thailand.

The 10 CRAZIEST DRUGS You Never Knew Existed!

J Psychiatr Assoc Thai ;53 Suppl. Discussion paper on the development of a standard for kava. Codex Alimentarius Comission. Kava - the Pacific elixir: the definitive guide to its ethnobotany, history, and chemistry. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Art Press; Kava: a comprehensive review of efficacy, safety, and psychopharmacology.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry ;45 1 Singh YN. Pharmacology and toxicology of kava and kavalactones.

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In: Singh YN Ed. Kava: from ethnology to pharmacology.

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Ramzan I, Tran VH. Chemistry of kava and kavalactones. Phytochemistry of the genus Piper. Phytochemistry ;46 4 Quantification of kavalactones and determination of kava Piper methysticum chemotypes using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for quality control in Vanuatu. J Agric Food Chem ;56 13 Simeoni P, Lebot V.

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Identification of factors determining kavalactone content and chemotype in Kava Piper methysticum Forst. Biochem Syst Ecol ;30 5 Kavalactones and the endocannabinoid system: the plant-derived yangonin is a novel CB1 receptor ligand. Pharmacol Res ;66 2 Mol Cancer ; Pacific island ' Awa kava extracts, but not isolated kavalactones, promote proinflammatory responses in model mast cells.

Phytother Res ;26 12 Kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol ;33 5 Kava hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern use: The presumed Pacific kava paradox hypothesis revisited. Br J Clin Pharmacol ;73 2 Rychetnik L, Madronio CM. The health and social effects of drinking water-based infusions of kava: A review of the evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev ;30 1 Teschke R, Lebot V. Proposal for a Kava Quality Standardization Code.

Food Chem Toxicol ;49 10 A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia. J Immigr Minor Health ;15 6 Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening. Rural Remote Health ;9 2 Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.

J Psychoactive Drugs ;40 3 Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of areca nut usage. Addict Biol ;7 1 Rooney DF. Betel chewing traditions in South-East Asia. Areca nut. PLoS One ;6 8 :e International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon: IARC; Association of betel nut with carcinogenesis: Revisit with a clinical perspective. Arecoline N -oxide: Its mutagenicity and possible role as ultimate carcinogen in areca oral carcinogenesis. J Agric Food Chem ;59 7 Why only areca nut chewing cannot cause oral submucous fibrosis?

Med Hypotheses ;81 1 Piper betel Linn betel vine , the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: Time to reconsider the wronged opinion. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ;12 9 Differential response to cholinergic agonist arecoline among different cognitive modalities in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology ;15 2 Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

Br J Psychiatry ; 5 Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents. Br J Clin Pharmacol ;17 5 Pharmacological studies on dlglaucine phosphate as an antitussive. Arzneimittelforschung ;33 7 Pharmacol Biochem Behav ;16 5 An isoquinoline alkaloid from the Chinese herbal plant Corydalis yanhusuo W.

Wang inhibits P-glycoproptein and multidrug resistance-associate protein 1. Food Chem ; Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug. Eur J Clin Pharmacol ;64 5 Rovinskii VI. Klin Med Mosk ;84 11 Glaucine as a non-declared active component of "legal highs". Problems of Forensic Sciences ; Talbot B, Ryder S.

Head shop 'legal highs' active constituents identification chart July - August The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aborigin use of nicotine in Central Australia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; Luanratana O, Griffin WJ. Alkaloids of Duboisia hopwoodii. Phytochemistry ;21 2 Synthetic Cathinones—Prevalence and Motivations for Use. John M. Corkery, Amira Guirguis, Duccio G. Papanti, Laura Orsolini, Fabrizio Schifano. Back Matter Pages Editors and affiliations. Jolanta B. Zawilska 1 1.

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