JWSR Volume X, Number 3 (2004)

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If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. Abstract : The renewal of eschatological reflection over the past few decades may be a precursor to an organic theology that enlarges faith to cultivate its own forward view through foresight methodologies. Volume 43 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.


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Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Among cruise lines, some are direct descendants of the traditional passenger shipping lines such as Cunard , while others were founded from the s specifically for cruising. Historically, the cruise ship business has been volatile. The ships are large capital investments with high operating costs. A persistent decrease in bookings can put a company in financial jeopardy.

Cruise lines have sold, renovated, or renamed their ships to keep up with travel trends. Cruise lines operate their ships virtually 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year. A ship which is out of service for routine maintenance means the loss of tens of millions of dollars. If the maintenance is unscheduled, it can result, potentially, in thousands of dissatisfied customers. A wave of failures and consolidations in the s led to many cruise lines being bought by much larger holding companies and continue to operate as "brands" or subsidiaries of the holding company.

Brands continue to be maintained partly because of the expectation of repeat customer loyalty, and also to offer different levels of quality and service. In , Carnival had merged Cunard's headquarters with that of Princess Cruises in Santa Clarita, California so that administrative, financial and technology services could be combined, ending Cunard's history where it had operated as a standalone company subsidiary regardless of parent ownership.

The common practice in the cruise industry in listing cruise ship transfers [27] and orders [28] is to list the smaller operating company, not the larger holding corporation, as the recipient cruise line of the sale, transfer, or new order. This industry practice of using the smaller operating company, not the larger holding corporation, is also followed in the list of cruise lines and in member-based reviews of cruise lines.

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Some cruise lines have specialties; for example, Saga Cruises only allows passengers over 50 years old aboard their ships, and Star Clippers and formerly Windjammer Barefoot Cruises and Windstar Cruises only operate tall ships. John W. Brown , which formerly operated as part of the United States Merchant Marine during World War II before being converted to a museum ship, still gets underway several times a year for six-hour "Living History Cruises" that take the ship through Baltimore Harbor, down the Patapsco River , and into the Chesapeake Bay, and she is also the largest cruise ship operating under the American flag on the United States East Coast.

Cruise ships are organized much like floating hotels, with a complete hospitality staff in addition to the usual ship's crew.

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It is not uncommon for the most luxurious ships to have more crew and staff than passengers. Traditionally, the ships' restaurants organize two dinner services per day, early dining and late dining, and passengers are allocated a set dining time for the entire cruise; a recent trend is to allow diners to dine whenever they want. Having two dinner times allows the ship to have enough time and space to accommodate all of their guests. Having two different dinner services can cause some conflicts with some of the ship's events such as shows and performances for the late diners, but this problem is usually fixed by having a shorter version of the event take place before late dinner.

Cunard Line ships maintain the class tradition of ocean liners and have separate dining rooms for different types of suites, while Celebrity Cruises and Princess Cruises have a standard dining room and "upgrade" specialty restaurants that require pre-booking and cover charges. Many cruises schedule one or more "formal dining" nights. Guests dress "formally", however that is defined for the ship, often suits and ties or even tuxedos for men, and formal dresses for women. The menu is more upscale than usual.

Besides the dining room, modern cruise ships often contain one or more casual buffet-style eateries, which may be open 24 hours and with menus that vary throughout the day to provide meals ranging from breakfast to late-night snacks. In recent years, cruise lines have started to include a diverse range of ethnically themed restaurants aboard each ship. Most cruise lines also prohibit passengers from bringing aboard and consuming their own beverages, including alcohol, while aboard.

Alcohol purchased duty-free is sealed and returned to passengers when they debark. There is often a central galley responsible for serving all major restaurants aboard the ship, though specialty restaurants may have their own separate galleys. As with any vessel, adequate provisioning is crucial, especially on a cruise ship serving several thousand meals at each seating.

For example, a quasi "military operation" is required to load and unload passengers and eight tons of food at the beginning and end of each cruise, for the Royal Princess. Cruise ships require electrical power, normally provided by diesel generators. Polluting emissions from the diesel engines can be equivalent to lorries running their engines, and is harmful where ships dock in populated areas. Some cruise ships already support the use of shorepower , while others are being adapted to do so. H2OZone aboard Freedom of the Seas. Promenade on the Allure of the Seas.

Golf course on Brilliance of the Seas. Molecular Bar aboard the Celebrity Equinox before Christmas. Formal brunch aboard the Celebrity Equinox.

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Surf simulator on Oasis of the Seas. A junior suite on Radiance of the Seas. A luxury suite aboard the Celebrity Equinox. Crew is usually hired on three to eleven month contracts which may then be renewed as mutually agreed, which is based upon service ratings from passengers as well as the cyclical nature of the cruise line operator. Most staff work hour work weeks for 10 months continuously followed by 2 months of vacation. There are no paid vacations or pensions for service, non-management crew, depending on the level of the position and the type of the contract.

Non-service and management crew members get paid vacation, medical, retirement options, and can participate in the company's group insurance plan. The direct salary is low for North American standards, [38] though restaurant staff have considerable earning potential from passenger tips. Crew members do not have any expenses while on board as food and accommodation, medical care, and transportation for most employees, are included.

This makes a cruise ship career financially attractive enough to compensate for lack of employment benefits. Living arrangements vary by cruise line, but mostly by shipboard position. In general two employees share a cabin with a shower, commode and a desk with a television set, while senior officers are assigned single cabins.

For the largest cruise operators, most "hotel staff" are hired from under-industrialized countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Caribbean, and Central America. While several cruise lines are headquartered in the United States, like most international shipping company, ships are registered in countries including the Netherlands, the UK, the Bahamas, and Panama. The International Labour Organization's Maritime Labour Convention, [41] also known as the "Seafarers' Bill of Rights," [42] provides comprehensive rights and protections for all crewmembers.

The ILO sets rigorous standards regarding hours of work and rest, health and safety, and living conditions for crewmembers and requires governments to ensure ships are in compliance. For cruise routes around Hawaii , operators are required to register their ships in the United States and the crew is unionized, so these cruises are typically much more expensive than Caribbean and Mediterranean.

Most cruise lines since the s have priced the cruising experience, to some extent, a la carte, as passengers spending aboard generates significantly more than ticket sales. However, there are extra charges for alcohol and soft drinks, official cruise photos, Internet and wi-fi access, and specialty restaurants; it has been reported that the casino and photos have high profit margins. Cruise lines earn significantly from selling onshore excursions keeping 50 percent or more of what passengers spend for these tours offered by local contractors.

Facilitating this practice are modern cruise terminals with establishments of duty-free shops inside a perimeter accessible only by passengers and not locals. In one case, Icy Strait Point in Alaska, the entire destination was created explicitly and solely for cruise ship visitors. Travel to and from the port of departure are the passengers' responsibility, although purchasing a transfer pass from the cruise line for the trip between the airport and cruise terminal will guarantee that the ship will not leave until the passenger is aboard.

Similarly, if the passenger books a shore excursion with the cruise line and the tour runs late, the ship is obligated to remain until the passenger returns. Older cruise ships have had multiple owners. Some ships have had a dozen or more identities.

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Many cruise lines have a common naming scheme they use for their ships. Some lines use their name as a prefix or suffix in the ship name such as the prefixes of " Carnival ", " AIDA ", " Disney ", or " Norwegian " and the suffix of " Princess ". The addition of these prefixes and suffixes allows multiple cruise lines to use the same popular ship names while maintaining a unique identifier for each ship.

Due to slower speed and reduced seaworthiness, as well as being largely introduced after several major wars, cruise ships have never been used as troop transport vessels. By contrast, ocean liners were often seen as the pride of their country and used to rival liners of other nations, and have been requisitioned during both World Wars and the Falklands War to transport soldiers and serve as hospital ships.


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  • Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the Summer Olympics led to a plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation. On 1 September , the U. The ship departed from Southampton for Bilbao on 21 April, and returned on 23 April. In , cruise ships were used to help transport residents off of some Caribbean islands destroyed by Hurricane Irma [51] as well as Puerto Rico residents displaced by Hurricane Maria.

    Most cruise ships sail the Caribbean or the Mediterranean. A cruise ship that is moving from one of these regions to another will commonly operate a repositioning cruise while doing so. The number of cruise tourists worldwide in was estimated at some 14 million. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm and Helsinki. Petersburg, the main Baltic port of call, received , passengers during the cruise season. According to CEMAR [56] statistics the Mediterranean cruise market is going through a fast and fundamental change; Italy has won prime position as a destination for European cruises, and destination for the whole of the Mediterranean basin.

    There are also smaller cruise lines that cater to a more intimate feeling among their guests. Many American cruise lines to the Caribbean depart out of the Port of Miami , with "nearly one-third of the cruises sailing out of Miami in recent years". Some UK cruise lines base their ships out of Barbados for the Caribbean season, operating direct charter flights out of the UK. The busiest ports of call in the Caribbean for cruising in the year are listed below [60]. In , Alaskan cruises generated nearly 5 million passenger and crew visits, Between October and September Alaska had about 2.

    That 2. Visitors generally spend money when travelling and this is measured in 2 distinct areas, the cruising companies themselves and the visitors. There are no current numbers for the cruise specific passengers spending ashore but the overall visitor expenditure can be measured. The second main area of economic growth comes from what the cruising companies and their crews spend themselves.

    This money is then sent to the service providers through the cruise line company. Cruise liner crew is also a revenue generator with 27, crew members visiting Alaska in alone, generating about 22 million.

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    These jobs were scattered across all of Alaska. Labor income is shown through the graph below. The construction market for cruise ships is dominated by three European companies and one Asian company:. A large number of cruise ships have been built by other shipyards, but no other individual yard has reached the large numbers of built ships achieved by the four above. As most of the passengers on a cruise are affluent and have considerable ransom potential, not to mention a considerable amount of cash and jewelry on board casino and shops , there have been several high-profile pirate attacks on cruise ships, such as on the Seabourn Spirit and MSC Melody.

    As a result, cruise ships have implemented various security measures. While most merchant shipping firms have generally avoided arming crew or security guards for reasons of safety, liability and conformity with the laws of the countries where they dock, cruise ships have small arms usually semi-automatic pistols stored in a safe accessible only by the captain who distributes them to authorized personnel such as security or the master-at-arms.

    The ship's high-pressure fire hoses can be used to keep boarders at bay, and often the vessel itself can be maneuvered to ram pirate craft. A recent technology to deter pirates has been the LRAD or sonic cannon which was used in the successful defense of Seabourn Spirit. A related risk is that of terrorism, the most notable incident being that of the hijacking of the Achille Lauro , an Italian cruise ship. Passengers entering the cruise ship are screened by metal detectors. Explosive detection machines used include X-ray machines and explosives trace-detection portal machines a.

    Security has been considerably tightened since September 11, , such that these measures are similar to airport security. In addition to security checkpoints, passengers are often given a ship-specific identification card , which must be shown in order to get on or off the ship. Journal of World History, Vol. Economic and Political Weekly June 13, ReOrient or Not? Immanuel and Me without a Hyphen. Gluck, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars , Topic: B. XXIV, No. Some of these essays are available in the On the New World Order.

    VII, No. XXVI, No. Santiago, Chile. Third World War [] with Epilogue 25 July Project for the First People's Century. Revista Web. Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular. Jameson, Eds.


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