The Mediterranean in the Ancient World
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Map - Roman Dominions in the Time of Trajan views. This is one of the Homann Heirs finest and most appealing maps of the ancient Greek World. Map centers on Greece but includes the entirety of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. Also includes the Black Sea as far as the Crimea and the sea of Azov. Extends north as far as Sarmatia and Pannonia. Includes Italy, Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia. Upper left quadrant features a decorative title cartouche adorned with the rectos and versos of 12 ancient Greek coins with explanatory numbered references outside the top border of the map.
Show the important Greek provinces and colonies through the Mediterranean, especially in modern day turkey and in the Italian peninsula. Includes nautical military and trade routes. A fine copy of an important map. Map - Mediterranean BC views.
The Mediterranean in the Ancient World by Fernand Braudel
Note: Map doesn't show subordinate Roman client kingdoms in Anatolia and the Levant. Map - Spread of Christianity views. Crete views Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of , the region had a population of , Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits such as its own poetry and music. It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation c. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete. Map - Cyprus views Cyprus. Map - Europe AD views. Map - AD Europe views. Map - Europe at the time of Odacer AD views. Map - Extend of the Roman Empire views. Map - Ancient Aegean views.
Women in the Ancient Mediterranean World
Ancient Greece and her Colonies views. Map - Barbarian Migrations views. Map - Map of Europe according to Strabo views. Map - Orbis Veteribus Notus views. The world map shows what a unique location the Mediterranean Sea has in the world -- it is big enough to house all of us but at the same time, with its unique shape, with its islands, bays and straits, it creates the means to connect the people around it. It looks as if it is a closed sea, but it offers the main transportation routes between east and west.
The Mediterranean Sea is a symbol of creativity, of the search for the meaning of life and for wisdom, and of the love of people and nature. This sea has always been an environment that has bred outstanding people who have made remarkable contributions to the development of history in philosophy, art, music, literature, science and technology.
Magnificent civilizations have scattered all around the Basin, from east to west, from north to south, from Mesopotamia to Egypt, from Anatolia, Troy to Macedonia, from the Greek city states to Phoenician civilization, from Carthage to Rome, from Baghdad to Al-Andalus, from Byzantium to the Ottoman Empire and from Alexandria to Bologna, and have formed a sound base for world civilizations. One cannot imagine a history of the world without the Egyptian, Hellenistic, Roman and Ottoman civilizations.
Established in BC, the Ancient Library of Alexandria in Egypt was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The first intellectual developments emerged in the eastern Mediterranean and focused mainly on philosophy. People around the Mediterranean Sea have had limitless opportunities to meet with different cultures and to learn about the world and this fact, starting from the Hellenistic period, gave birth to the emergence of philosophers and scientists who made great contributions to intellectual development.
From ancient times to the medieval and Renaissance periods, the Mediterranean Basin played a major role in philosophy, art and science. After the eighteenth century, however, when long-range seafaring became possible and new trade routes developed, the Mediterranean region began to lose its importance and other parts of Europe and North America gained influence. Thus, there was a shift both from south to north and from east to west in the development of modern philosophy, art, science and technology.
The list of the oldest universities in the world varies, depending on how one defines a university.
If a university is considered to be a degree-granting institution, all of the world's oldest are located in Europe where the practice of granting certification was widespread by the s. These quotes reflect a narrow, Eurocentric view of the university: "The university is a European institution", or "No other institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done".
More broadly the list of the oldest universities does not include the ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome, China, India or the Arab world, but the educational institutions that existed there satisfy a traditional definition of university and should, therefore, be included. If we list the universities based on the narrow definition of degree-granting institutions, we see that the oldest university in the world is the University of Bologna, established in Among the 44 oldest universities, 25 were founded in the Mediterranean Basin, and the Italian Peninsula is the leading region, with 13 universities.
Although Ottoman institutions are not included in the list, Istanbul University should be mentioned, having been established in by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. Another important institution and the first higher education institution of the Ottoman Empire outside religious education is Istanbul Technical University, which was established in If we take a broader definition of university as "an autonomous self-governing institution of higher education" and look at the 10 oldest leading universities in the world, 4 then we will have a different list. By definition, the university first was developed as a religious institution madrasah that originated in the medieval Islamic world.
The first one was the University of Al-Karaouine in Since , many universities have been founded all over the world and many different types of higher education institutions emerged. Higher education is still in transition under the pressure of globalization but it is obvious that the role of the university as an institution continues to grow and expectations of society from the university are altering rapidly in today's changing environment.
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