Nanotechnology : Ethical and Social Implications

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Winner27, while rais- environmental harm to include lengthy regulatory battles, ing several issues and questions regarding social impact of costly clean-up efforts and painful public-relations nanoscience and nanotechnology, asks who gets to define debacles. Fortunately, nanoscience and nanotechnology what the transformation of the society will involve?

Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology

Fiorino28 products generated by chemical reactions or engineered characterizes these as normative, instrumental and sub- nanomaterials, which in fact are growing. Studies have stantive. The normative argument proposes that dialogue demonstrated that some nanomaterials can be mobile or is a good thing in and of itself, and as such forms a part persist in the environment and can be toxic to animals.

The instrumental argument chain.

Societal impact of nanotechnology - Wikipedia

Entry into the human body can occur through the suggests that dialogue, as one means of rendering deci- skin, intestinal tract or lungs Some of these particles sion-making more open and transparent, will increase the settle in the nasal passages by inhaling , where they have legitimacy of decisions. Finally, the substantive argument been shown to be taken up by the olfactory nerves and is that dialogue will help generate better quality out- carried past the blood—brain barrier directly into the brain comes.

The need for a dialogue involving stakeholders — cells Nanoparticles in the 30—50 nm range have been scientists, technologists, industry representatives, policy shown to penetrate deeply into the lungs and from there makers and civil society regarding nanoscience and nano- enter the systematic circulation The study also Regulatory mechanisms claims that the effects found in fish could be predictive of similar effects in humans. Nel et al. Possible undesirable risks associated with nanotechnology. Burgi need for complete freedom in pursuing their scientific res- and Pradeep4 claim that it is too early to develop any mis- earch and expect that there should not be any kind of pro- trust about nanotechnology4.

But when it is too early to hibition at any stage of research by the norm authority. We can analyse implications of nanoscience country for nanoscience and nanotechnology: and nanotechnology by comparing and contrasting it with another developed technology in the recent history — Science will grow on its own. When electric bulb came genetic engineering technology. But now Let us take the example of genetically modified seeds, we are able to work at nights.

Similarly, nanotechno- especially adoption of Bt cotton in India. The company logy will be good for the society. We can do many claimed that the Bt cotton seed would protect the crop things at nano level which will be good for the society. However, the evidence The argument of the scientist assumes that the analogy suggests that the performance of Bt cotton in different between any nanoscience and nanotechnology product states has been varied. Further, farmers continue to use and electric bulb technology is a valid one.

It then goes pesticides to tackle secondary pests. There are various on to claim that since the electric-bulb technology was apprehensions and these have made the introduction of created without the requirement of any informed permis- genetically modified crops impossible, as there was no sion of a regulatory body, no nanoscience and nanotech- dialogue among the stakeholders regarding the geneti- nology research should be guided by informed permission.

Adoption of nanoscience and nano- The weakness of this argument stems primarily from the technology should not follow the same trajectory. We will partly earch, and from conflating all cases of permission to be address this question by citing an example regarding the cases of simple permission, especially in the context of use of helmet by motorbike riders. One does not use the research. People are advised to use helmets India do think that one needs a regulatory body in India to minimize risk.

Hence the use of helmet is mandatory for nanoscience and nanotechnology research. To quote a while riding a bike under the law. Here, the government scientist working in the area of nanoscience and nanotech- is acting both as the norm authority and the regulatory nology: body.

Analogically it may be argued that there is a need for regulation of nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Yes, definitely. When it comes to health concern or im- We can envisage generally three kinds of situations in pact on society, definitely yes.

There should be some relation to regulation in the context of research in deve- regulatory body or public health institutions or this loping new technologies: First, where one needs a simple could be a part of national initiative. They [reviewers] permission, which is a lack of prohibition, to carry out are monitoring from scientific point of view. It is inter- research in a particular manner. In this situation, the norm disciplinary, neither purely science, nor purely health.

The members with should be taken into consideration while assessing the their expertise in various fields regulate the path of risk. This perspective on risk claims that since the lay per- development of a particular technology. And the third sons handle real-life situations where they are faced with kind is a situation which lies between the two situations risk, their life experiences and views should also be fac- already mentioned. In order to certain stage of the research when a new thing may be assess the risk and regulate nanoscience and nanotech- expected to create some ill-effect on the environment or nology research one needs informed permission, which society.

We will present responses of scientists to the amounts to restricting certain freedom at a certain point question of regulation of nanoscience and nanotechnology of time of the scientific research. Here the notion of risk research in India, based on interviews with those engaged to health and environment can be understood in relation in nanoscience and nanotechnology research in the country. In the first type, there is a finite may religions, culture, food and dress habits, nanoscience and be small likelihood of the risk being real. For example, nanotechnology is likely to have multi-layered effects in as we have already mentioned earlier, asbestos particles an uneven way.

As in the case of any other technology, resemble nanoparticles in size. So, there is a higher prob- some of the questions regarding nanoscience and nano- ability that nanoparticles might cause harm to human technology that are pertinent in the Indian context are: health like that caused by asbestos particles.

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To what extent will the technology be acces- earch before it becomes a case of an informed permis- sible to all sections of the society? To what extent will the sion. Here one does not know at what stage of research benefits be equitably distributed? How do we manage there would be a need for a regulatory body. To quote a risk? It is in this context that social agency to regulate nanoscience and nanotechnology res- science research assumes significance as it focuses on the earch in India: ELSE issues involved in the generation and application of technologies.

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At this point in time none of these the potential of social science research to address these [regulatory] actions should contain the growth of sci- issues is recognized to a greater extent in the Western ence. Nano is in its infancy. All that I would advocate countries than in the developing countries. Once our society is prepared, if research takes [us] that far, we may think of regulations. Conclusion This reflects that some of the scientists working in the Nanoscience and nanotechnology, like any other knowl- area of nanoscience and nanotechnology in India are aware edge and associated practices that were developed in the of the risks associated with it.

But clearly they do not past, is getting shaped by scientific, technological, economic advocate regulation at the present stage of research, as it and cultural forces. Different sections — enthusiasts and may slow down or halt the pace. This view implies that skeptics — of this new technology are engaged in a debate regulation can wait till there are some visible conse- about the degree of desirability of this technology from quences for the society.

In the Western countries research on ELSE fore, no research is completely free from some kind of dimensions of nanoscience and nanotechnology has been monitoring. Presently in India we have a committee of sci- recognized as a legitimate field of inquiry. Research on entists to decide the direction or thrust areas of nano- social, economic, environmental and health effects of nano- science and nanotechnology research in the country.

This science and nanotechnology, and risks associated with committee must be expanded to include members drawn this new technology and regulatory norms have been ini- from different disciplines to monitor or set the path for tiated with adequate funding. In India, similar evaluations the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

The nanoscience and nanotechnology community of actual or even probable harms that nanoscience and in India, except a few members, does not seem to appre- nanotechnology will create. Chowdhury29 advocates the ciate the ELSE issues relating to nanotechnology ade- regulatory measures to prevent hazards and ensure the quately.

The nanoscience and nanotechnology community safe use of the technology. Interdisciplinary re- nanotoxicology. Some Indian scientists are in favour of search involving natural sciences and social sciences with institutionalizing that sub-specialty. To quote a scientist a dispassionate spirit of inquiry that characterizes the ethos working at one of the IITs: of science would provide insights relevant for policy— practice dynamics. Nanotoxicology is an area which is coming up. This In order to gain the trust of the public and for better area is happening in India too.

To evaluate the impact of this, and ethics have to be debated and a consensus has to be nanotoxicology studies are necessary.

Privacy Implications of Nanotechnology

Although in India ated in a systematic way. Among the industries are: Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, environmental and health implications research. Drexler, E. These studies may be useful social and economic challenges of nanotechnology, ESRC Report, to build approximate scenarios on the basis of different UK, , p.

Joy, B. Wired, , issue 8. Smalley, R.

Ball, P. It is worth- and economic challenges of nanotechnology, ESRC Report, UK, while to create a research cell in the nanoscience and nano- , p. Adam, B. London, Douglas, M. MacKenzie, D. Open University Press, Buckingham, , 2nd edn. Pidgeon, N. Bijker, W. Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Barbour, I. Balbus, J. Nelkin, D. Burgi R. Oberdorster, E. Health Per- 5. Feynman, R. Nel, A.

Nanotechnology: Ethical and Social Implications

Drexler, K. Science, , , — Oberdorster, G. McCray, W. Making policies for our logy: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine nanotech future. Health Perspect. Configure custom resolver. Chapters BETA. Baum - - Futures Thompson - - NanoEthics 2 3 On the Autonomy and Justification of Nanoethics. Fritz Allhoff - - NanoEthics 1 3 Just a Cog in the Machine? Shannon L. Spruit , Gordon D. Rolfe - - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 3 Ethics, Speculation, and Values.

Rebecca Roache - - NanoEthics 2 3 How Should We Do Nanoethics? Ibo van de Poel - - NanoEthics 2 1 Johnson - - NanoEthics 1 1 Review of Nanoethics. Nanoscience and Nanoethics: Defining the Disciplines. Armin Grunwald - - NanoEthics 4 2 McGinn - - NanoEthics 4 2 Fabio Bacchini - - NanoEthics 7 2 The Newness of Nanoethics and the Consequentialist Bias.

Fabio Bacchini - - Etica E Politica 15 1 Foreword: Ethical Choices in Nanotechnology Development. Issues: Broader Societal Impact. Jean-Pierre Dupuy - forthcoming - Nanoethics. The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology. New Jersey. Added to PP index Total views 44 , of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 21 37, of 2,, How can I increase my downloads?